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April 19, 2014
 
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Vol. 3, No. 18, 12 September 2003
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From Science:
Asia: The next frontier for HIV/AIDS

Myanmar

Myanmar has one of the worst HIV problems in Asia, fueled by a potent mix of injecting drug use and commercial sex work. Yet poverty and the country's military dictatorship pose formidable obstacles to doing battle against AIDS.

— By Jon Cohen 
 
Vietnam — HIV and heroin: a deadly international affair
HIV is largely confined to injecting drug users in Vietnam, but it is crossing into China. A novel cross-border project is tackling the drug route.
— By Jon Cohen 
 
Thailand & Cambodia — Two hard-hit countries offer rare success stories
By heavily promoting condom use, Cambodia and Thailand have blunted their epidemics, but the virus continues to make headway in some populations.
— By Jon Cohen 
 
Thailand beats the odds in completing vaccine test
A just-completed efficacy trial in injecting drug users is a major accomplishment—regardless of the outcome. Even the company behind the trial wondered if it could be done.
— By Jon Cohen 
[About AIDScience articles] [See recent AIDScience articles]
 
Hot News:
PET scans used to detect HIV progression
Positron emission tomography (PET) scans can track the progression of HIV and could lead to new treatment options and the development of the next generation of anti-HIV drugs. The Lancet 362(9388), 20 September 2003. See also "A newsmaker interview with C. David Pauza" at Medscape here (Medscape requires a one-time free registration).
 
HIV may be flushed out of latently infected T cells
A technique that drives HIV out from latently infected T cells may offer a way to kill the virus, according to a new study. A future therapeutic strategy could be designed to eradicate latent HIV reservoirs in infected patients. Immunity 19(3), 413, September 2003. See also "New approach activates and destroys latent HIV" at Medscape here (Medscape requires a one-time free registration).
 
Cellular immunity elicited by HIV-1/SIV DNA vaccination does not augment the sterile protection afforded by passive infusion of neutralizing antibodies
High levels of infused anti-HIV-1 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) can completely protect macaque monkeys against mucosal chimeric SHIV infection. Although effector T cells can limit viral replication, they are not able to assist humoral immunity to prevent the establishment of initial infection. Journal of Virology 77(19), 10348, October 2003.
 
Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine compared with zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Kampala, Uganda
Intrapartum/neonatal nevirapine significantly lowered HIV-1 transmission risk in a breastfeeding population in Uganda compared with a short intrapartum/neonatal zidovudine regimen. Lancet 362(9387), 13 September 2003.
See also a Lancet commentary, "Long-term findings of HIVNET 012: the next steps"
See also a commentary from the CDC HIV/STD/TB Prevention News Update.

 
Study links smallpox vaccine to HIV immunity
British biotech firm Acambis (Nasdaq: ACAM, UK:ACM) rose 5.6 percent after the group said a study showed that the smallpox vaccine may confer a degree of immunity from HIV.
 
Blocking the docking of HIV-1 to gp120
Researchers at Bristol-Myers Squibb describe a small molecular weight inhibitor of HIV-1 infection that acts by blocking the binding of gp120 to its cell surface receptor, the first step in infection. This class of HIV inhibitors has the potential to become a new addition to the current collection of antiretroviral drugs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, published online before print August 20, 2003.
 
Latest News Headlines
[What is this?]
Acambis smallpox vaccine linked to HIV fight
Dems question HIV/AIDS program changes
Rapid HIV test during labor gives accurate results
STD screening urged in HIV clinics
HIV study boosts nevirapine for combatting child infection
Russia reports rise in HIV cases
Expert: TB, South Africa's number one killer of AIDS sufferers
Drugs alone can't control HIV epidemic
WHO warns Asia of wider HIV/AIDS epidemic
Gay men 'actively seeking HIV status'
FDA OKs new use of OraSure HIV test; stock jumps
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U.S. gives $7 million to curb spread of HIV in Ethiopia
Ethiopia launches plan to cut mother-to-child AIDS transmission
GM bugs could protect against HIV
Program aims to help HIV, AIDS patients
Dying for profit
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Ethiopia sounds alarm on spread of AIDS
South Africa plans phased AIDS drug roll-out
Cheap drugs 'not enough to fight AIDS in Africa'
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Commonwealth universities urged to fight AIDS
China defends AIDS policy, says it is determined to address epidemic
In South Africa, WHO leader sees chance in AIDS fight
U.S., Netherlands sign accord on fight against AIDS
Medics 'did not spread AIDS'
Shared razor may have spread HIV
Call for global action on AIDS
Rights group pillories China for AIDS spread
Survey: Africans diligent with AIDS pills
WHO: Most AIDS sufferers in Africa lack access to drugs
Medical use of cannabis approved
Staffing crisis threatens AIDS treatment in Africa: WHO
HIV patients with PAH: Results of treatment with Tracleer
U.N. envoy: Asia leaders ignore looming AIDS crisis
Merck among leaders in AIDS vaccine research
Cheap drugs deal agreed as U.S. lifts veto
Through sex, they 'cleanse' African villages
Child health dilemma
Drug firms welcome patent safeguards
WHO chief: Angola must act now against AIDS
WTO settles drug pact for poor nations
More news headlines:
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Latest Journal Headlines   [What is this?]
Vaccines:
ELDKWA-epitope-specific monoclonal antibodies inhibit HIV envmediated syncytium formation. Immunobiology.
T cell targeted immune enhancement yields effective T cell adjuvants. International Immunopharmacology.
Unique risks to volunteers in HIV vaccine trials. Journal of Investigative Medicine.
Synthetic vaccines: The role of adjuvants in immune targeting. Current Medicinal Chemistry.
Prevention:
Characteristics of individuals with male-to-male and heterosexually acquired infectious syphilis. Sexually Transmitted Diseases.
Sexual transmission of HIV in Africa. Nature.
Viral infections among HIV-infected and high-risk HIV-uninfected women. Journal of Infectious Diseases.
Advancing HIV prevention: New strategies for a changing epidemic — United States, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Rapid fingerstick testing: A new era in HIV diagnostics. AIDS Clinical Care.
HIV incidence among street youth in Montreal, Canada. AIDS.
The contribution of steady and casual partnerships to the incidence of HIV infection. AIDS.
Public policy regulating private and public space in gay bathhouses. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.
Rectal use of nonoxynol-9 among men who have sex with men. AIDS.
Risk factors for incident HIV infection among anonymous HIV testing site clients. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.
Incubation and duration of specific symptoms at ARS as independent predictors of progression to AIDS. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.
Voluntary HIV testing among inmates. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.
Comparison of two strategies for administering nevirapine to prevent perinatal HIV transmission. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.
Intensive injection cocaine use as the primary risk factor in the Vancouver HIV-1 epidemic. AIDS.
Is breastfeeding best for HIV-positive mothers?. AIDS.
NeuroAIDS:
Chlamydophila pneumoniae and HIV-associated dementia complex. Journal of Neuroimmunology.
HIV-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. Journal of the Neurologicals Sciences.
Virology:
B7-H1 is up-regulated in HIV infection and is a novel surrogate marker of disease progression. Blood.
HIV-1 Tat can favor the establishment of neoplasia. Journal of Biological Chemistry.
Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env-mediated fusion by DC-SIGN. Journal of Virology.
Increased in vitro cytopathicity of R5/NSI HIV-1 correlates with a progressive course of infection. Journal of Infectious Diseases.
Decreased stimulation of CD4+ T cell proliferation and IL-2 production by infected dendritic cells. Journal of Immunology.
Review: AIDS pathogenesis: what have two decades of HIV research taught us?. Nature Reviews Immunology.
Natural variation of the nef gene in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infections in Portugal. Journal of General Virology.
Clade B HIV-1 superinfection with wild-type virus after primary infection. AIDS.
Serum immunoglobulin A (IgA)-mediated immunity in HIV-2 infection. Virology.
The functional relationship between V3 loop and gp120 context with regard to HIV coreceptor usage. Virology.
In-utero transmission of quasispecies among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genotypes. Virology.
Transmission of HIV-1 infection between trophoblast placental cells and T-cells. Virology.
Heterogeneous clearance rates of long-lived lymphocytes infected with HIV. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
Innate immunity in HIV infection: Effect of viremia on natural killer cell function. Journal of Infectious Diseases.
Microanatomic relationships between CD8+ cells and HIV-1-producing cells in human lymphoid tissue. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.
Bystander CD4(+) T lymphocytes survive in HIV-infected human lymphoid tissue. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.
Enhanced transcytosis of R5 HIV across tight monolayer of polarized human endometrial cells. Cytokine.
A more accurate assessment of HIV-1 replication dynamics and T-cell decay in vivo. Journal of Virology.
Latent viral reservoir in a SIV-Macaca nemestrina model of HIV-1-infected patients on HAART. Journal of Virology.

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