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February 6, 2016
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Vol. 3, No. 18, 12 September 2003
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From Science:
Asia: The next frontier for HIV/AIDS


Myanmar has one of the worst HIV problems in Asia, fueled by a potent mix of injecting drug use and commercial sex work. Yet poverty and the country's military dictatorship pose formidable obstacles to doing battle against AIDS.

— By Jon Cohen 
Vietnam — HIV and heroin: a deadly international affair
HIV is largely confined to injecting drug users in Vietnam, but it is crossing into China. A novel cross-border project is tackling the drug route.
— By Jon Cohen 
Thailand & Cambodia — Two hard-hit countries offer rare success stories
By heavily promoting condom use, Cambodia and Thailand have blunted their epidemics, but the virus continues to make headway in some populations.
— By Jon Cohen 
Thailand beats the odds in completing vaccine test
A just-completed efficacy trial in injecting drug users is a major accomplishment—regardless of the outcome. Even the company behind the trial wondered if it could be done.
— By Jon Cohen 
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Hot News:
PET scans used to detect HIV progression
Positron emission tomography (PET) scans can track the progression of HIV and could lead to new treatment options and the development of the next generation of anti-HIV drugs. The Lancet 362(9388), 20 September 2003. See also "A newsmaker interview with C. David Pauza" at Medscape here (Medscape requires a one-time free registration).
HIV may be flushed out of latently infected T cells
A technique that drives HIV out from latently infected T cells may offer a way to kill the virus, according to a new study. A future therapeutic strategy could be designed to eradicate latent HIV reservoirs in infected patients. Immunity 19(3), 413, September 2003. See also "New approach activates and destroys latent HIV" at Medscape here (Medscape requires a one-time free registration).
Cellular immunity elicited by HIV-1/SIV DNA vaccination does not augment the sterile protection afforded by passive infusion of neutralizing antibodies
High levels of infused anti-HIV-1 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) can completely protect macaque monkeys against mucosal chimeric SHIV infection. Although effector T cells can limit viral replication, they are not able to assist humoral immunity to prevent the establishment of initial infection. Journal of Virology 77(19), 10348, October 2003.
Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine compared with zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Kampala, Uganda
Intrapartum/neonatal nevirapine significantly lowered HIV-1 transmission risk in a breastfeeding population in Uganda compared with a short intrapartum/neonatal zidovudine regimen. Lancet 362(9387), 13 September 2003.
See also a Lancet commentary, "Long-term findings of HIVNET 012: the next steps"
See also a commentary from the CDC HIV/STD/TB Prevention News Update.

Study links smallpox vaccine to HIV immunity
British biotech firm Acambis (Nasdaq: ACAM, UK:ACM) rose 5.6 percent after the group said a study showed that the smallpox vaccine may confer a degree of immunity from HIV.
Blocking the docking of HIV-1 to gp120
Researchers at Bristol-Myers Squibb describe a small molecular weight inhibitor of HIV-1 infection that acts by blocking the binding of gp120 to its cell surface receptor, the first step in infection. This class of HIV inhibitors has the potential to become a new addition to the current collection of antiretroviral drugs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, published online before print August 20, 2003.
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Advancing HIV prevention: New strategies for a changing epidemic — United States, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
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Rectal use of nonoxynol-9 among men who have sex with men. AIDS.
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Incubation and duration of specific symptoms at ARS as independent predictors of progression to AIDS. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.
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Intensive injection cocaine use as the primary risk factor in the Vancouver HIV-1 epidemic. AIDS.
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HIV-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. Journal of the Neurologicals Sciences.
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HIV-1 Tat can favor the establishment of neoplasia. Journal of Biological Chemistry.
Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env-mediated fusion by DC-SIGN. Journal of Virology.
Increased in vitro cytopathicity of R5/NSI HIV-1 correlates with a progressive course of infection. Journal of Infectious Diseases.
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Natural variation of the nef gene in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infections in Portugal. Journal of General Virology.
Clade B HIV-1 superinfection with wild-type virus after primary infection. AIDS.
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In-utero transmission of quasispecies among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genotypes. Virology.
Transmission of HIV-1 infection between trophoblast placental cells and T-cells. Virology.
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