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February 11, 2016
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Vol. 3, No. 16, 15 August 2003
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From Science:
Virology: Weapons of mutational destruction
An oft-proposed strategy for fighting viral infections is to design drugs that induce a high rate of mutation, potentially causing the viruses to succumb to "error catastrophe." A recent cluster of papers describes a new function for a cellular protein called APOBEC3G that may act in just this way to block the replication of retroviruses such as HIV.

— By Vineet N. KewalRamani and John M. Coffin 
Antiretroviral drugs for tuberculosis control in the era of HIV/AIDS
Antiretroviral (ARV) drugs can prevent TB by preserving immunity but cohort analysis shows that early therapy, plus high levels of coverage and compliance, will be needed to avert a significant fraction of TB cases. However, ARVs could enhance the treatment of TB while TB programs provide an important entry point for the treatment of HIV/AIDS.
— By Brian G. Williams and Christopher Dye 
[About AIDScience articles] [See recent AIDScience articles]
Hot News:
Prevalence of unsafe sexual behavior among HIV-infected individuals
The Swiss HIV Cohort Study: There is no evidence that self-reported unsafe sexual behavior is more prevalent among HIV-infected individuals with optimal viral suppression. However, unsafe sex is associated with other factors. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 33(4), 494, 1 August 2003.
New York City: Report finds low condom use, HIV testing
A new report by the city's Department of Health and Mental Hygiene found that 42 percent of New Yorkers with multiple sexual partners said they did not use a condom the last time they had sex. As many as 1 in 4 HIV positive New Yorkers does not know s/he is infected.
Desperate labs: Monkeys wanted
Public-health crises ranging from AIDS to the fear of bioterrorism have led to a monkey shortage that has scientists paying $5,000 to $10,000 per monkey, buying one another's "used" primates, even trading in monkey futures — rights to rhesus macaques in the womb.
Plasmid chemokines and colony-stimulating factors enhance the immunogenicity of prime-boost vaccines
Plasmid cytokines can markedly improve the immunogenicity of DNA prime-viral vector boost vaccine strategies and can partially compensate for antivector immunity. Journal of Virology 77(16), 8729-8735, August 2003.
South African hospitals a 'high AIDS infection risk'
A shocking picture of poor clinical practice, inadequate sterilisation facilities and a high HIV/AIDS prevalence rate among young health-care workers, has emerged from preliminary findings of a national study of health-care workers conducted by the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), and presented at the South African National AIDS conference. (See also recent AIDScience article here).
Latest News Headlines
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Latest Journal Headlines   [What is this?]
Protective efficacy of an AIDS vaccine, a single DNA priming followed by a single booster. Journal of Virology.
Optimization and immune recognition of multiple novel conserved HLA-A2, HIV-1-specific CTL epitopes. Journal of General Virology.
Induction of protective immune responses against R5 HIV-1 infection in hu-PBL-SCID mice. Journal of Virology.
Plasmid chemokines and colony-stimulating factors enhance the immunogenicity of prime-boost vaccines. Journal of Virology.
Potent, persistent induction and modulation of cellular immune responses in rhesus macaques. Journal of Virology.
DCs generated in the presence of GM-CSF and IFN-alpha are potent inducers of specific CD8 T cells. AIDS.
Characteristics of individuals with male-to-male and heterosexually acquired infectious syphilis. Sexually Transmitted Diseases.
Sexual transmission of HIV in Africa. Nature.
Viral infections among HIV-infected and high-risk HIV-uninfected women. Journal of Infectious Diseases.
Advancing HIV prevention: New strategies for a changing epidemic — United States, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Rapid fingerstick testing: A new era in HIV diagnostics. AIDS Clinical Care.
HIV incidence among street youth in Montreal, Canada. AIDS.
The contribution of steady and casual partnerships to the incidence of HIV infection. AIDS.
Public policy regulating private and public space in gay bathhouses. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.
Rectal use of nonoxynol-9 among men who have sex with men. AIDS.
Risk factors for incident HIV infection among anonymous HIV testing site clients. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.
Incubation and duration of specific symptoms at ARS as independent predictors of progression to AIDS. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.
Voluntary HIV testing among inmates. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.
Comparison of two strategies for administering nevirapine to prevent perinatal HIV transmission. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.
Intensive injection cocaine use as the primary risk factor in the Vancouver HIV-1 epidemic. AIDS.
Is breastfeeding best for HIV-positive mothers?. AIDS.
Chlamydophila pneumoniae and HIV-associated dementia complex. Journal of Neuroimmunology.
HIV-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. Journal of the Neurologicals Sciences.
B7-H1 is up-regulated in HIV infection and is a novel surrogate marker of disease progression. Blood.
HIV-1 Tat can favor the establishment of neoplasia. Journal of Biological Chemistry.
Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env-mediated fusion by DC-SIGN. Journal of Virology.
Increased in vitro cytopathicity of R5/NSI HIV-1 correlates with a progressive course of infection. Journal of Infectious Diseases.
Decreased stimulation of CD4+ T cell proliferation and IL-2 production by infected dendritic cells. Journal of Immunology.
Review: AIDS pathogenesis: what have two decades of HIV research taught us?. Nature Reviews Immunology.
Natural variation of the nef gene in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infections in Portugal. Journal of General Virology.
Clade B HIV-1 superinfection with wild-type virus after primary infection. AIDS.
Serum immunoglobulin A (IgA)-mediated immunity in HIV-2 infection. Virology.
The functional relationship between V3 loop and gp120 context with regard to HIV coreceptor usage. Virology.
In-utero transmission of quasispecies among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genotypes. Virology.
Transmission of HIV-1 infection between trophoblast placental cells and T-cells. Virology.
Heterogeneous clearance rates of long-lived lymphocytes infected with HIV. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.
Innate immunity in HIV infection: Effect of viremia on natural killer cell function. Journal of Infectious Diseases.
Microanatomic relationships between CD8+ cells and HIV-1-producing cells in human lymphoid tissue. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.
Bystander CD4(+) T lymphocytes survive in HIV-infected human lymphoid tissue. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.
Enhanced transcytosis of R5 HIV across tight monolayer of polarized human endometrial cells. Cytokine.
A more accurate assessment of HIV-1 replication dynamics and T-cell decay in vivo. Journal of Virology.
Latent viral reservoir in a SIV-Macaca nemestrina model of HIV-1-infected patients on HAART. Journal of Virology.

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